Orthopaedics

Types of Hand Fractures

Hand fractures occur when any bone in the hand undergo a break. The classification is made basing on the location of the bone. The three types of the Hand Fracture are:

  • Fractures of the phalanges

  • Fractures of the body of the hand

  • Fractures of the heel of the hand

Fractures Of The Phalanges:

These are commonly known as the

Finger Fractures.

A finger is an organ found on the hand of humans. It is a type of digit. A normal human being has five such digits in each hand. These are also known as

‘Phalanges’

. The digits starting with a thumb, followed by an index finger, middle finger, ring finger and ending with the little finger. The plural form of the Phalanx bones is called as the phalanges. In all primates like humans and monkeys, only two phalanges are found in the thumbs and toes while the other fingers have three.

Totally 14 phalanges are found in each hand (3 in each finger and 2 in thumb).

Classification of the Phalanges:

  • Distal phalanges: These form the tips of the thumb, fingers and toes.
  • Proximal phalanges: These are found most close to the hand (or foot).
  • Middle or intermediate phalanges: These are found between the distal and proximal phalanges. This bone is absent in our thumb and toe.

Fracture:

This is a general cause of a fall or trauma. Pain on touching a bone, swelling on the finger, difficulty and discomfort in moving the finger ans sometimes deformity of the finger are the common symptoms.

Fractures Of The Body Of The Hand:

This fracture is also known as

Metacarpal fracture.

The intermediate part of the skeleton of the hand forms the metacarpal. These are found next to the Phalanges and in between the phalanges and the carpus. It consists of metacarpal bones. The peripheral metacarpals help in the formation of the sides of the cup in the concavity formed by those of the thumb and little finger of the palmar gutter. The index metacarpal is firmly fixed while the thumb metacarpal acts independently from others. The middle metacarpals are united tightly to the carpus. The ring metacarpal forms a transitional element of the semi-independent last metacarpal. There are

five metacarpal bones in each hand, one for each finger

. It supports the hand to form the knuckle on the back of our hand.

Fracture:

Pain and swelling is seen on hand due to fracture. Bruising do not appear immediately after the injury. These type fractures are result of falls, sports injury, punches or accidents.

Fractures Of The Heel Of The Hand:

It is also known as

Scaphoid fracture.

The scaphoid bone is located at the side of the radius bone of the carpus (i.e.between the hand and the forearm). This is the largest bone among the wrist bones. Its shape is that of a medium sized cashew nut. Its name has been derived from two

Greek words ‘skaphe’ (meaning a boat) and ‘eidos’ (meaning form).

Fracture:

The most common symptoms of this fracture are pain on making any movement of the wrist, swelling on the back of the wrist, and tenderness at the base of the thumb. A fracture in this bone is the most common form of wrist fracture. Pain is observed at the base of the thumb.

A fracture

is defined as a separation of an object (or material) into two or more pieces due to stress. It is applied to all bones in living vertebrates. The bones do not always gets separated into pieces. A slight crack may also be regarded as a fracture. It reduces physical strength of the fractured bone and cause extreme discomfort, pain and swelling of the affected area. Very rarely deformation may also be seen.

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