Common Orthopedic Disorders

There are various disorders that affect the musculoskeletal system and need clinical care by a healthcare professional. While a few may be born with orthopedic disorder because of faulty genes or inborn errors of metabolism, few others may develop later in life. Listed below are thefun cause and effect essay topics different orthopedic disorders that affect both children and adults.


Osteoporosis is an orthopedic disease, characterized by a gradual loss of bone mineral density. Bones are calcified tissues that have the ability to repair themselves. However, as some people age, the mineralization of bones doesn’t take place in the right manner. This gives rise to the development of hollow spaces within the bones. This causes the bones to become brittle and fragile. Those people who have been diagnosed with osteopenia, a condition characterized by less than normal bone mineral density, are at a greater risk of developing osteoporosis. In case of people who have been diagnosed with osteoporosis, even a mild injury can cause the bones to develop cracks or fracture.

Osteoarthritis is another common orthopedic disorder. This is a common form of arthritis, characterized by the degeneration of joints owing to the breakdown of cartilage. Cartilage refers to the connective tissue that coats the ends of the bones and acts as a protective covering for the bones. When this tissue gets worn out with age, the bones start rubbing against each other. Friction between the bones gives rise to inflammation, and may cause development of bony outgrowths that are referred to as bone spurs. Joint pain, stiffness and reduced range of motion of the affected joint are some of the symptoms of this bone disorder.

While minerals such as calcium and phosphorus are essential for healthy bones, vitamin D also figures in the list of nutrients that are required for optimal bone health. A deficiency of vitamin D can give rise to a childhood orthopedic disorder called rickets. This disorder is attributed to improper mineralization of the bones due to deficiency of vitamin D or poor absorption of vitamin D by the intestines. Softening of the bones is the characteristic symptom of this disorder and therefore, affected individuals become susceptible to fractures. Bones may bend or break easily. Pain in the muscles and bones may also be experienced. essay writer service reviews This metabolic disease can also affect adults. In case of adults, this metabolic bone disease is referred to as osteomalacia.

Also known as marble bone disease and Albers-Schonberg disease, osteopetrosis is a rare disease that is characterized by hardening of the bones. This is an inherited condition and is believed to be caused due to mutations in genes that are associated with the formation, development and functioning of specialized cells called osteoclasts. These cells play a vital role in breaking down old bone tissue and facilitate the replacement of old bone tissue with the new ones. Thus, when the osteoclasts are unable to perform their function, the new bone tissue deposits over the old tissue, thus, making the bones denser. The abnormal structure of the bones may make them susceptible to breakage.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Also known as brittle orthopedic disease, osteogenesis imperfecta figures in the list of bone diseases and disorders that are caused due to mutations in certain genes. The mutations affect the way the body makes collagen. Those who suffer from this disease are highly susceptible to fractures. Though eight forms of osteogenesis imperfecta have been identified, the type II form is believed to be the severest form. As mentioned earlier, mutations in certain genes causes problems in the insufficient collagen production or cause defects in the structure of collagen. The genes involved in this bone disease include COL1A1, COL1A2, CRTAP and LEPRE1.

Paget’s Disease
This is another orthopedic disease that occurs as a result of abnormal bone remodeling process. The incidence of Paget’s disease in children is quite low and it usually affects adults. Enlargement of bones or bone deformities could occur as a result of this condition. Such misshapen or abnormal bones may impinge on nerves and cause pain. Skull, spine, thigh bones, collarbone, upper arm bone and the bones in the pelvic region are commonly affected by this condition. It is believed that those with a family history of this disease are at a greater risk of developing this condition. Usually, a viral infection triggers the development of this bone disease in those who may be genetically predisposed.

Bone Cancer
Cancer refers to abnormal and uncontrolled cell division that leads to the development of malignant growth. Primary bone cancer refers to abnormal division of cells in the tissues that make up the bones. Osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma are both types of cancer that originate in the bone itself. Cancer can start in another part of the body and spread to bones. Bone pain, swelling, development of a mass on the affected bone, fatigue and weakened bones are some of the symptoms of bone cancer.